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Full text of "The Fate Of Man In The Modern World"

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54                        E FATE OF MAN

increase in. a capitalist society, that the pro-
letariat would become even mote numerous,
would be a united and disciplined force which
was called to create a new social order. He
noted the exploitation of labourers, but failed to
see their transformation into the unemployed.
What has actually happened is that with the
technicalhation and rationalization of industry,
the number of labourers decreases, man-power
is replaced by the machine, and instead of an
increase in the number of workers we have an
increase in the number of all sorts of function-
aries of industrial bureaucracy. This changes
the whole perspective. Labour never was free.
Human culture and society has always been built
upon the slavery of the working-class. Labour,
hard physical toil, is the Biblical curse laid upon
man. At first labour was slavery, then serfdom,
and it became " free " in capitalist society only
in the sense that it has become an article of trade
which may be "freely'* sold under threat of
starvation. Even in the communist society of
present-day Russia, labour has become serfdom
since it is commandeered and cruelly exploited
by the state in the person of the communist
bureaucracy.

A new form of the enslavement of labour is
arising in the modern authoritarian states, based
upon a dictated world-view. This is a sur-